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Russia on Fire: No air to breath, no home to return to 俄羅斯陷火海:沒空氣可呼吸,無家可歸

Russia is being devastated by extreme weather  俄羅斯正在被極端氣候摧殘 — and their leaders aren’t silent on what they think the cause is.  On Thursday, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev spoke to a Russian Security Council meeting on the ongoing threat of wildfires associated with the country’s heatwave and drought:

“…our country has not experienced such a heat wave in the last 50 or even 100 years… I want to say that this is, of course, a severe trial for our country, a great trial indeed. But at the same time, we are not alone in facing these hardships, for other countries too have gone through such trials and, despite all the difficulties, have managed to cope with the situation. … Overall, we need to learn our lessons from what has happened, and from the unprecedented heat wave that we have faced this summer.

None of us can say what the next summer will be like. The forecasts vary greatly. Everyone is talking about climate change now. Unfortunately, what is happening now in our central regions is evidence of this global climate change, because we have never in our history faced such weather conditions in the past. This means that we need to change the way we work, change the methods that we used in the past.”

Fires and Smoke in Russia

Posted August 5, 2010 NASA

More images of this event in Natural Hazards

Intense fires continued to rage in western Russia on August 4, 2010. Burning in dry peat bogs 乾泥煤濕地 and forests 森林, the fires produced a dense plume of smoke 產生濃密羽狀飄浮的煙塵 that reached across hundreds of kilometers. 擴散穿越數百公里 The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) captured this view of the fires and smoke in three consecutive overpasses on NASA’s Terra satellite. The smooth gray-brown smoke hangs over the Russian landscape, completely obscuring the ground in places. The top image provides a close view of the fires immediately southeast of Moscow, while the lower image shows the full extent of the smoke plume.

The fires along the southern edge of the smoke plume near the city of Razan, top image, are among the most intense. Outlined in red, a line of intense fires is generating a wall of smoke. 濃烈火線產生一道煙牆。 The easternmost fire in the image is extreme enough that it produced a pyrocumulus cloud 火積雲, a dense towering cloud formed when intense heat from a fire pushes air high into the atmosphere.

The lower image shows the full extent of the smoke plume, spanning about 3,000 kilometers (1,860 miles) from east to west. 煙塵範圍從東到西跨越3000公里。 If the smoke were in the United States, it would extend approximately from San Francisco to Chicago. The MODIS sensor acquired the right section of the image starting at 5:55 UTC (10:55 a.m. local time, 8:55 a.m. in Moscow). The center section is from the overpass starting at 7:35 UTC (11:35 local time, 10:35 in Moscow), and the westernmost section was taken at 9:10 UTC (12:10 p.m. local time in Moscow).

Early analyses of data from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), another instrument on the Terra satellite, indicates that smoke from previous days has at times reached 12 kilometers (six miles) above Earth’s surface into the stratosphere. 意即在平流層有觀測到煙 At such heights, smoke is able to travel long distances to affect air quality far away. This may be one reason that the smoke covers such a large area. The pyrocumulus cloud and the detection of smoke in the stratosphere are good indicators that the fires are large and extremely intense. 火積雲與偵測到煙飄到平流層顯示火非常大且極端濃烈。

According to news reports, 520 fires were burning in western Russia on August 4. MODIS detected far fewer. It is likely that the remaining fires were hidden from the satellite’s view by the thick smoke and scattered clouds. High temperatures and severe drought dried vegetation throughout central Russia, creating hazardous fire conditions in July. 高溫與嚴重乾旱草木提供危險的火災條件。

As of August 4, 48 people had died in the fires and more than 2,000 had lost their homes throughout central Russia, said news reports. The dense smoke also created hazardous air quality over a broad region. Visibility in Moscow dropped to 20 meters (0.01 miles) 莫斯科能見度掉到20公尺 on August 4, and health officials warned that everyone, including healthy people, needed to take preventative measures such as staying indoors or wearing a mask outdoors, reported the Wall Street Journal. In the image, Moscow is hidden under a pall of smoke. Close to the fires, smoke poses a health risk because it contains small particles (soot) and hazardous gases that can irritate the eyes and respiratory system. Smoke also contains chemicals that lead to ozone production farther away from the fires. 煙塵包含化學物導致臭氣產生..。

The large image provides the full scene shown in the lower image at the sensor’s highest resolution (as shown in the top image). The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides the scene in additional

BBC News. (2010, August 4). Medvedev cuts holiday as Russian wildfires kill 48. Accessed August 4, 2010.
Iosebashvili, I. (2010, August 4).
Death toll rises as Russian fires rage. Wall Street Journal. Accessed August 4, 2010.

NASA image courtesy Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC. Caption by Holli Riebeek with information courtesy Mike Fromm, Naval Research Laboratory.
Instrument: Terra - MODIS


野火波及基地 俄羅斯總統震怒
2010/08/05 民視新聞連惠幸


俄羅斯野火燒不盡,位在歐俄的薩洛夫市也受到威脅,由於俄羅斯最機密的核子研究中心,也是前蘇聯核武的誕生地,就在這裡,當局不敢怠慢,連還 在實驗階段的遙控機器人都派出來救火。

環保人士擔心大火可能導致輻射塵外洩,不過核子專家說情況還沒那麼嚴重,也難怪總統梅維迪夫震怒,莫 斯科東南方100公里外的科倫納基地,上週四竟然被野火燒掉一半建築,包括13個停機棚,據俄羅斯媒體報導,可能有將近200架海軍戰機全毀,造價極為昂貴的蘇愷33戰機引擎,也燒掉4個,海軍總司令和海軍總部指揮官都受到申誡,海軍航空部領導人和其他7名將領,更直接被總統下令革職。

俄羅斯2010年面臨130年來,也是有紀錄以來最炎熱的夏天,野火災情是40年來最嚴重,全國至少有520處火場,大火肆虐面積超過1800平方公里,將近 7個台北市那麼大,首都莫斯科雖然沒有起火,還是難逃霾害,市區一片霧濛濛,當局共投入17萬人救災,總理蒲亭也趕往最嚴重的災區,給消防弟兄打氣。
而 根據氣象預報,未來一星期莫斯科附近還是難逃攝氏38度的高溫。


俄路斯森林大火已致50人死亡 周邊多國伸出援手
2010-08-05 中 國新聞網

中新網8月5日電 (穆路遙)由異常酷熱高溫引發的森林大火和幹旱目前仍在俄境內的17個聯邦主體蔓延,其中俄7個聯邦主體全境和6個聯邦主體的部分地區宣布進入緊急狀態。

據最新統計,俄森林大火已造成50人死亡,近2000座房屋被毀,逾3500人無家可歸。俄緊急情況部發表聲明稱,截至當地時間4日晚8時,俄境內共有520個起火點,覆蓋面積18.85萬公頃。此外,在過去的一晝夜里,俄境內泥潭火災新增 13起,總數達24起,其中13處在莫斯科州。所幸,沒有一處民宅受損。



俄路斯火勢蔓延,周邊多國近日也紛紛伸出援手。俄總統梅德韋傑夫3日聽取俄緊急情況部部長紹伊古有關火災情況的匯報後說,他已批准來自烏克蘭的2架安-32飛機和阿塞拜疆的2架消防直升機赴俄滅火。至 此,在俄路斯滅火的飛機已達到60架。據俄新社5日報道,波蘭總理圖斯克日前向俄政府發電,對其境內森林大火肆虐表示深切同情。圖斯克表示,波方將盡全力幫助俄方撲滅森林大火。

大火進逼 俄恐釀放射汙染
2010/08/07 蔡鵑如/中國時報

俄羅斯因大旱引發的野火一發不可收拾,火勢直逼首都莫斯科,軍方已緊急將存放於莫斯科近郊阿拉賓斯克 市(Alabinsk)軍火庫的彈藥、火砲與飛彈撤離,俄羅斯原子能署也已把下諾夫可羅德州薩羅夫 市(Sarov)核子研究中心的幅射性燃料移走。

俄國緊急事務部部長紹伊古六日表示,大批人力正努力阻止火勢蔓延至布揚斯克 (Bryansk)。當地一九八六年因烏克蘭轍諾堡核電廠事故而遭核子汙染,若發 生火災,有害的放射性粒子可能因而釋放至空氣中。

莫斯科霾害加劇 居民忙逃離
法新社 /  2010/08/08

(法新社莫斯科7日電) 莫斯科居民今天開始逃離這座城市。這場現代人記憶中最嚴重的霾害已充斥整個莫斯科,空氣污染的程度超出安全標準6倍,人們被迫戴上防護面罩。


緊急狀況部門高層官員史蒂巴諾夫(VladimirStepanov)說:「很不幸地,過去24小時莫斯科地區的火災數字已增加1倍,因為有民眾在靠近森林的地方放鞭炮。」 該部門表示,已增派1000名消防員前往莫斯科東南方、約100公里處的泥炭沼澤區滅火。

莫斯科地標包括克里姆林宮(Kremlin)和金 色的教堂圓頂都消失在一片煙霧當中,留在莫斯科的居民也大多戴上防護面罩,或用沾溼的布蓋住臉部。駕駛人就算是大白天也要打遠燈,才能在覆蓋莫斯科的刺鼻霧霾中看清路況。以肉眼直視太陽會感到些微不適,太陽則變成霧濛濛的圓盤。

這片連美國航太總署(NASA)太空影像都可以清 楚看到的煙霧不但滲進家中和辦公室,甚至連全世界最深的地鐵之一莫斯科地鐵,都可以偵測到空氣污染。

野火引發霾害 莫斯科霧茫茫
2010/08/09 民視新聞林聖卿


俄羅斯野火持續發燒,畫面上可以看到,野火引發的煙霧瀰漫莫斯科市區,機場跑道一片霧茫茫,由於能見度太低,估計有數十架航班臨時被取消或轉降其他地區,許多旅客苦候多時 還搭不到飛機,抱怨聲不斷。

旅客怨聲載道,刺鼻煙霧更是令人有口難言,路上行人紛紛戴上口罩自保,由於空氣中的一氧化碳等污染物濃度,是平 常的3倍以上,莫斯科當局為此成立了120多座防霾中心,讓民眾可以透過氧氣罩呼吸,當地政府和醫院大樓也開放100多個設有空調的房間,讓民眾有地方可 以暫時躲避熱浪和霾害。


俄大火濃煙籠罩莫斯科 2千名旅客滯留機場
2010/08/09 Nownews

俄羅斯的世紀森林大火肆虐超過一周,火場面積雖停止擴大,但濃煙已覆蓋整個莫斯科,當局呼籲平民協助軍隊救火,多個國家也都警告國民盡量不要前往 有關地區。據悉,大火濃煙阻礙莫斯科航班的升降,多莫傑多沃國際機場(Moscow Domodedovo Airport)約有2千名旅客因班機延誤而滯留。