The 10 key planet-wide indicators of a warming climate identified by the report are:
-- Higher temperatures over land 更高的陸地溫度
-- Higher temperatures over oceans 更高的海洋溫度
-- Higher ocean heat content 更高海洋熱含量
-- Higher near-surface air temperatures (temperatures in the troposphere, where Earth's weather occurs 更高空氣溫度 (大氣層對流層，地球天氣發生層)
-- Higher humidity 更高濕度
-- Higher sea surface temperatures 更高海表面溫度
-- Higher sea levels 海平面上升
-- Less sea ice 海冰減少
-- Less snow cover 降雪覆蓋更少了
-- Shrinking glaciers 冰河縮小了
|Reuters – Steam and other emissions are seen coming from funnels at a chemical manufacturing facility in Melbourne …|
With an almost daily flood of data on climate change, Peter Thorne of the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites in Asheville, North Carolina, saw the need for a comprehensive look at the information to pick the most obvious signs of planetary warming.
"These are indicators from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean that we would expect to be changing in a warming world," Thorne said at a telephone briefing for reporters.
"Each indicator is changing as we would expect if the world truly were warming," he said. "Not a single analysis disagrees that the global climate is changing. The bottom line conclusion that the world's been warming is simply undeniable."
The entire report can be seen online, click http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/bams-state-of-the-climate/2009.php
The report is being published in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.
(Editing by Eric Walsh) (For more news on Reuters India, click http://in.reuters.com)
由「國家海洋暨大氣總署」（NOAA）公布的最新「2009年氣候現狀報告」（The 2009 State of theClimate Report），由48國的303位科學家完成，涵蓋了去年數據。
【明報專訊】美國國家海洋及大氣管理局（NOAA）根據全球十大氣象衡量指 標，指出地球在這50年間變得愈來愈熱，尤以近10年為甚，科學家稱此乃歷來印證全球暖 化這一事實的「最大證據」。
報告根據48國 160個研究組織的逾300名科學家提供的資料撰成，有關資料取自人造衛星、氣象汽球、氣象站、船舶、浮標和實地考察等途徑。NOAA的盧布琴科 （Jane Lubchenco）指出，今次分析匯集了從大氣之巔至海洋深處的多個觀測記錄，「這些獨立制定的證據，全指向同一個結論﹕我們的地球正在變暖」。
此外，因強烈大西洋季風的緣故，東北部也適合發展風力。除了經濟效應，氣候變遷對東北各地也產生不同影響，其一是暴風雨、龍捲風和海嘯等極端氣候現象發生愈來愈多，近年來，培南布可地區的雨量都在24小時內增加超過 100毫米。諾布瑞表示，這是很糟糕的情況，因為農作物需要正常降雨量，暴風雨只會沖刷泥土、帶走土壤養份，無從涵養水源，甚至造成河道淤 積，降低旱地水塘的蓄水能力。
The Earth is hotter than ever, global warming is real, researchers warn
Scientists hope findings will debunk some growing skepticism about climate change
Paul Waldie From Thursday's Globe and Mail Published on Thursday, Jul. 29, 2010
|Scientists hope findings will debunk some growing skepticism about climate change|
“The conclusion is unmistakable – yes, the planet is warming,” said Derek Arndt, a co-editor of the report, called State of the Climate, which was published by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA.
“The facts speak for themselves, and speak simultaneously,” said Mr. Arndt, who runs the Climate Monitoring Branch at NOAA. “And, they all point toward the same conclusion – the globe is warming.”
The report – co-edited by researchers in the United States, Canada, Britain and Australia – pulled together data from 10 climate indicators measured by 160 research groups in 48 countries. 160個研究團隊，48個國家。
The scientists compared the figures decade by decade as far back as possible, more than 100 years in some cases. They concluded 2000 to 2009 was the warmest decade ever, and the Earth has been growing warmer for 50 years. Each of the past three decades – 1980s, 1990s and 2000s – was the hottest on record, the researchers said.
This year is shaping up to be even warmer. For the first six months of 2010, the combined global land and ocean temperature was the warmest on record, according to the NOAA.
The study is the most extensive ever done by the agency and it comes after controversy erupted last year when leaked e-mails purported to show that scientists at a world-leading climate institute in Britain had fudged research. Three investigations have concluded that the researchers at the University of East Anglia's Climatic Research Unit did not tamper with data or interfere with the peer review process to exaggerate the threat of global warming.
Mr. Arndt said the NOAA report is meant to be a kind of medical check-up for the planet in which measurements are taken and the results documented. He said it will be up to others to draw conclusions about why climate change is occurring and what should be done about it. “This is basically a broad and comprehensive telling of what’s going on with the climate system,” he said.
Nonetheless, he said he was personally taken aback by how all 10 indicators clearly showed the Earth is heating up. “Seeing them standing next to each other, kind of nakedly, and pointing to the same conclusion, it very much jumped off the page at me... Absolutely, yes, we live in a warming planet.”
Of the 10 measurements, the report said seven are rising – air temperature over land, sea-surface temperature, air temperature over oceans, sea level, ocean heat, humidity and the temperature of the troposphere, which is the atmosphere closest to the Earth’s surface. Three indicators are declining – Arctic sea ice, glaciers and spring snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere. All of which point to a warming trend.
The past decade was 0.6 degrees Celsius warmer than the 1960s, and 0.2 degrees warmer than the 1990s, the report found. 過去十年已比1960年上升了攝氏0.6度。While that may seem small, Mr. Arndt said, the planet has already been changed. “Glaciers and sea ice are melting, heavy rainfall is intensifying and heat waves are more common. And, as the new report tells us, there is now evidence more than 90 per cent of warming over the past 50 years has gone into our ocean.”冰川與海冰融化，暴雨更強烈，熱浪更頻繁．．
The researchers also found the retreat of mountain glaciers, an important signal of climate change, continued for the 19th consecutive year in 2009. The cumulative loss of the past 30 years is “equivalent to slicing 13 metres off the top of the average glacier,” the study said. The majority of glaciers in every region surveyed receded last year. For example, of the 88 glaciers examined in Switzerland, 81 had retreated, two advanced and five were stable last year. Of the 93 glaciers in Austria, 85 receded, seven didn’t move and one advanced.
As for Canada, the report noted the mean temperature for 2009 was 0.8 C above normal, tying 1988 as the 14th warmest year since nationwide records began in 1948. The warmest year was 1998, which was 2.5 C above normal. For the decade as a whole, “it is clear that the 2000s was the warmest decade out of the six that are available for this national study, with an average temperature of 1.1C above normal.”
Spain Sees Temperatures Rising 3 to 6 Degrees By 2100
28-Jul-10 Blanca Rodriguez
|People cool off in a public fountain in central Cordoba August 4, 2007, as temperatures soar to around 45 degrees Celsius.|
Photo: Javier Barbancho
The Met Office said it produced the forecasts in order to plan for the impact of climate change. "Madrid will be like (southern city) Seville, and Seville like Tucson. This is a report for action," Met Office President Ricardo Garcia told journalists.
Climate Change Secretary Teresa Ribera added at a news conference that Spain, which already suffers from water shortages and is building desalination plants, was particularly vulnerable to climate change.
"To the extent that temperatures change, animals and other living things will have to grow in different places to today, and that will also lead to significant changes in economic activities," she said.
In order to combat climate change and reduce its extensive dependence on imported fossil fuels, Spain has invested heavily in subsidizing renewable energy sources in recent years.
Spain is now the world's fourth-largest producer of wind power and the second-largest of solar, and renewables provided 40 percent of the country's electricity in the first half of 2010.
Google climate map offers a glimpse of a 4C world
Interactive tool layering climate data over Google Earth maps shows the impact of an average global temperature rise of 4C
Posted by Adam Vaughan Wednesday 14 July 2010
|A new interactive Google Earth map was developed using peer-reviewed science from the Met Office Hadley Centre and other leading impact scientists. Photograph: earth.google.co.uk|
Think it's hot this summer? Wait until you see Google's simulation of a world with an average global temperature rise of 4C.
Using a map that was first launched by the former Labour administration in October 2009, the coalition government has taken temperature data from the Met Office Hadley Centre and other climate research centres and imposed it on to a Google Earth layer.
It's a timely arrival, with warnings this month that current international carbon pledges will lead to a rise of nearly 4C and the Muir Russell report censuring some climate scientists for not being more open with their data (but exonerating them of manipulating the scientific evidence).
Unlike a similar tool using IPCC data that was launched by Google in the run-up to the Copenhagen climate conference last year, this map will be updated regularly with new data. It also has a series of YouTube videos of experts across the globe, with Met Office staff talking about forest fires in sub-Saharan Africa and researchers at the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research explaining sea level rises. To go more in-depth you can follow links to government sites, such as this one on water availability in a warming world.
Playing with the layer is surprisingly addictive, mainly thanks to Google Earth's draggable interface. Unlike the static map of last year, it also has the bonus of showing more obviously how temperature rises will differ drastically around the world. The poles glow a red (a potential rise of around 10C) while most of northern Europe escapes with light orange 2-3C rises. Other hotspots, such as Alaska, the Amazon and central Asia, also stand out.
Neatly, you can turn different climate "impacts" on and off. If you just want to see which regions will be worst affected by sea level rises - such as the UK and Netherlands as well as low-lying island states - you can. One limitation is that you have to zoom out to continental level to see the layer: if you're zoomed on your street, you can't see it.
Climate change minister Greg Barker launched the map today alongside the government's chief scientist, Prof John Beddington. Barker said: "This map reinforces our determination to act against dangerous man-made climate change. We know the stakes are high and that's why we want to help secure an ambitious global climate change deal."
The layer, of course, isn't the only one with an environmental theme to land on Google Earth. The UN's environment programme has one showing deforestation, WWF has a layer highlighting its projects across the globe and Google even has its own climate change "tours" for Google Earth. What other good green Earth layers have you stumbled across? And how do you rate the newest addition from the UK government?
• The government's map, 'The impact of a global temperature rise of 4C', is here (you'll need a browser plug-in or the Google Earth app installed to view it)http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/blog/2010/jul/14/google-climate-data
World on Track for Warmest Year on Record, U.S. Scientist Says
July 08, 2010 Bloomberg By Brian K. Sullivan
July 8 (Bloomberg) -- The current year may become the warmest on record, according to a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration scientist. Temperature trends across the U.S. and around the world have been among the warmest on record, said David Easterling, a climatologist with NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, North Carolina.
“If the warming around the world continues the way it has so far this year, we are likely to have 2010 be the warmest on record,” Easterling said during a conference call on climate change hosted by the Union of Concerned Scientists, in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The combined land and ocean temperatures around the world were 1.22 degrees warmer than the 20th-century average, according to NOAA records. Since 1975, global temperatures have been rising and since 1960 the number of heat waves has been increasing, Easterling said on the call.
Much of the U.S. Northeast has been gripped by a heat wave that broke temperature records in New York, Washington and Baltimore and brought 100 degrees or more to Newark four days in a row.
Energy use has risen and utilities have asked customers to curb their use to conserve power.
“We can’t say that one individual heat wave, or even two heat waves, are due to global warming but what we can say is that warming temperatures do increase the probability of a heat wave,” Easterling said. “The current spate of heat waves could be a harbinger of things to come.”
--Editors: Richard Stubbe, Joe Link.
To contact the reporter on this story: Brian K. Sullivan in Boston at firstname.lastname@example.org.
To contact the editor responsible for this story: Dan Stets at email@example.com
Man-made climate change blamed for 'significant' rise in ocean temperature
By Steve Connor, Science Editor Thursday, 20 May 2010
|Coral reefs are known to be sensitive to rising temperatures and the resultant increase in acidity|
Measuring the temperature of the oceans has not been easy, but the scientists behind the latest study believe there is now incontrovertible evidence to show that the top few hundred metres of the sea are warming – and that this temperature rise is consistent with man-made climate change.
The findings are important because ocean temperatures are seen as a more reliable and convincing signal of global warming than land-based measurements, which are prone to huge variability. This is due to the fluctuating influences of the weather and the spread of cities, which can artificially increase local terrestrial temperatures by the urban "heat island" effect. 海洋溫度資料比陸地表資料更具可信度，可排除都市熱島效應．．
Scientists involved in the study have looked at temperature recordings gathered by flotation devices that take measurements of the top 700m of the ocean. They conclude that this upper layer of ocean has warmed significantly between 1993 and 2008 – the period covered by the study – and that this is slightly faster than earlier estimates used in the last report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
The research team, led by John Lyman of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Seattle, found that the temperature data gathered over the study period point to a "robust warming" of the upper ocean, despite uncertainties over some of the data.
Rising ocean temperatures are important because the sea is a huge "sink" for global heat and carbon dioxide – its capacity to store heat is about 1,000 times greater than the atmosphere. Warmer water is less able to absorb the extra carbon dioxide being pumped into the atmosphere as a result of burning fossil fuels, and as seawater warms it also expands, causing a rise in sea levels. The temperature measurements were gathered using devices originally developed by the military to estimate the speed of underwater sonar signals.
These expendable bathythermograph instruments (XBTs) have recently been replaced by more sophisticated Argos instruments that collect temperatures at different depths as they automatically sink and then resurface.
The use of two different kinds of instruments to measure the same physical phenomenon, and doubts about the accuracy of the early XBT devices, have raised questions about the reliability of the upper-ocean temperature record. This led to the reappraisal by Dr Lyman and his group, which is published in the journal Nature.
"They find a robust warming of the global upper ocean to be present in the data, in spite of considerable uncertainties arising from the observations themselves," said Kevin Trenberth of the US National Centre for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado.
Since 2003 there has been a slight levelling off of the rise in temperatures and the scientists said that they cannot explain this apparent stalling of ocean warming, because sea levels have continued to rise and the evidence suggests that this must be caused by both thermal expansion of the oceans, as well as the melting of land-based ice sheets and glaciers.
"It hasn't stopped heating up. Its not as if temperatures have stopped rising, it's just that they are not rising as fast as they were. We cannot explain this at present. It may be due to further problems hidden within the ocean data or the way they are processed," Dr Trenberth said.
Peter Challenor, of the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, said the overall picture is clear – the oceans are warming up. "I'm convinced of that. Everything is consistent with it. The slope is statistically significant, whereas the levelling off in recent years isn't statistically significant," he said.
"This study has removed many of the nagging doubts about the details. It shows the warming is real."