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^^您好!這裡是一個追求靈性成長的靈修網誌,

記錄著我修行路上的經歷、心得、創作..,還有對地球暖化的關心~
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六月北極海冰持續快速消融

Conditions in context

Figure 2. The graph above shows daily Arctic sea ice extent as of July 5, 2010. The solid light blue line indicates 2010; dashed green shows 2007; solid pink shows 2006, and solid gray indicates average extent from 1979 to 2000. The gray area around the average line shows the two standard deviation range of the data. Sea Ice Index data.
—Credit: National Snow and Ice Data Center
At the end of May 2010, daily ice extent fell below the previous record low for May, recorded in 2006, and during June continued to track at record low levels. By the 30th of June, the extent was 510,000 square kilometers (197,000 square miles) below the same day in 2006.

Weather conditions, atmospheric patterns, and cloud cover over the next month will play a major role in determining whether the 2010 sea ice decline tracks at a level similar to 2007, or more like 2006. Although ice extent was greater in June 2007 than June 2006, in July 2007 the ice loss rate accelerated. That fast decline led up to the record low ice extent of September 2007. 雖然2007年六月海冰面積比2006年六月還要大,但2007年到了七月海冰加速消融,創下2007年九月歷史最低海冰面積記錄。

However, it would not be surprising to see the rate of ice loss slow in coming weeks as the melt process starts to encounter thicker, second and third year ice in the central Arctic Ocean. Loss of ice has already slowed in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas due to the tongue of thicker, older ice in the region noted in our April update.

June 2010 compared to past years

Figure 3. Monthly June ice extent for 1979 to 2010 shows a decline of 3.5% per decade.
—Credit: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Average ice extent for June 2010 was190,000 square kilometers (73,000 square miles) less than the previous record low for June, observed in 2006; 620,000 square kilometers (240,000 square miles) below that observed in 2007; and 1.29 million square kilometers (498,000 square miles) below the average extent for the month.

The linear rate of monthly decline for June over the 1979 to 2010 period is now 3.5% per decade. 1979-2010期六月的月降速率線,每十年降3.5%。This year’s daily June rate of decline was the fastest in the satellite record; the previous record for the fastest rate of June decline was set in 1999. This rapid decline was in part driven by ice loss in Hudson Bay.

The Arctic dipole anomaly

Figure 4. This map of sea level pressure for June 2010 shows a return of the Arctic dipole anomaly pattern, with unusually high pressure (yellow and orange) over the northern Beaufort Sea and unusually low pressure (purple and blue) over the Eurasian coast.
—Credit: National Snow and Ice Data Center courtesy NOAA/ESRL Physical Sciences Division
The record low ice extent of September 2007 was influenced by a persistent atmospheric pressure pattern called the summer Arctic dipole anomaly (DA). The DA features unusually high pressure centered over the northern Beaufort Sea and unusually low pressure centered over the Kara Sea, along the Eurasian coast. In accord with Buys Ballot's Law, this pattern causes winds to blow from the south along the Siberian coast, helping to push ice away from the coast and favoring strong melt. The DA pattern also promotes northerly winds in the Fram Strait region, helping to flush ice out of the Arctic Ocean into the North Atlantic. The DA pattern may also favor the import of warm ocean waters from the North Pacific that hastens ice melt.

June 2010 saw the return of the DA, but with the pressure centers shifted slightly compared to summer 2007. As a result, winds along the Siberian coastal sector are blowing more from the east rather than from the south. Whether or not the DA pattern persists through the rest of summer will bear strongly on whether a new record low in ice extent is set in September 2010.

Nares Strait

Figure 5. This satellite image, acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the NASA Terra satellite on June 30, 2010, shows that Nares Strait was open and sea ice was flowing through it. Normally Nares Strait remains plugged by an "ice arch" through early July, but this year it was clear by May.
—Credit: National Snow and Ice Data Center courtesy NASA/GSFC MODIS Rapid Response

Ron Kwok of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) reports that Nares Strait, the narrow passageway between northwest Greenland and Ellesmere Island is clear of the ice “arch" that usually plugs southward transport of the old, thick ice in the Lincoln Sea. Typically the ice arch forms in winter and breaks up in early July. This year the arch formed around March 15th and lasted only 56 days, breaking up in May.

In 2007 the ice arch did not form at all, allowing twice as much export through Nares Strait than the annual mean. Although the export of sea ice out of the Arctic Ocean through Nares Strait is very small in comparison to the export through Fram Strait, the Lincoln Sea contains some of the Arctic’s thickest ice. For the ice flux rates out of Nares strait, see Figure 5a.

Meanwhile, in Antarctica

Figure 6. The graph above shows daily Antarctic sea ice extent as of July 5, 2010. The solid light blue line indicates 2010; dashed green shows 2007, and solid gray indicates average extent from 1979 to 2000. The gray area around the average line shows the two standard deviation range of the data. Sea Ice Index data.
—Credit: National Snow and Ice Data Center

At the end of June, Southern Hemisphere mid-winter, the sea ice surrounding Antarctica was more than two standard deviations greater than normal. On June 30, Antarctic sea ice extent was15.88 million square kilometers (6.13 million square miles), compared to the 1979 to 2000 average of 14.64 million square kilometers (5.65 million square miles) for that day. ps:現在南半球是冬季!

While recent studies have shown that wintertime Antarctic sea ice has a weak upward trend, and substantial variability both within a year and from year to year, the differences between Arctic and Antarctic sea ice trends are not unexpected. Climate models consistently project that the Arctic will warm more quickly than the Antarctic, largely due to the strong climate feedbacks in the Arctic. 氣候反饋北極比南極更強烈,所以北極比南極更快暖化。

Warming is amplified by the loss of ice cover in the Arctic Ocean in areas that had been ice-covered for decades, and by the warming of Arctic lands as snow cover is lost earlier and returns later than in recent decades.

Moreover, rising levels of greenhouse gases and the loss of stratospheric ozone appear to be affecting wind patterns around Antarctica. Shifts in this circulation are referred to as the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO). As greenhouse gases have increased, and especially when ozone is lost in spring, there is a tendency for these winds to strengthen (a positive AAO index). The net effect is to push sea ice eastward, and northward, increasing the ice extent. As the current sea ice anomaly has developed, the AAO index has been strongly positive. See the
NOAA AAO Index Web site. For more information about the differences between sea ice dynamics in the Arctic and Antarctic, see the NSIDC All About Sea Ice Web site.

For previous analyses, please see the drop-down menu under Archives in the right navigation at the top of this page.
NSIDC scientists provide Arctic Sea Ice News & Analysis, with partial support from NASA.
資料來源:http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews/2010/070610.html


登山家見證喜馬拉雅冰川消融
2010/07/1 AFP 鄭竹雅 譯

(法新社紐約16日電) 英國登山傳奇馬洛瑞(George Mallory)1921年拍下聖母峰(Mount Everest)北壁的照片時,他腳下蜿蜒壯觀的冰河看似永世不變。歷經數十年來的污染和全球暖化,現代登山家布里薛斯(David Breashears)在相同地點再次拍照,證明1項令人驚恐的事實。

馬洛瑞在聖母峰長征之旅身亡,他死前目睹壯觀、雪白的S型廣袤冰河, 如今這條「絨布冰川」(MainRongbuk Glacier)已大幅萎縮。一座座結凍的冰峰還在,但變小也變矮,成為細窄的線狀。過去這些冰峰的體積足以媲美辦公大樓。

布里薛斯詳加比較今昔照片,確定絨布冰川的深度降低97公尺。他14日於紐約亞洲協會 (Asia Society)說:「此區和喜馬拉雅山脈中、西段的融化速度非常快,令人震驚。」該協會本月13日至8月15日展示這些照片。在全球暖化的原因和真相引發政治激辯之際,布里薛斯的說法相當實際。他沿著早期3位偉大登山攝影家的步伐前進,包括馬洛瑞、出生於加拿大的測繪先驅惠勒(Edward Wheeler),以及作品橫跨19與20世紀的義大利攝影師塞拉(Vittorio Sella)。

成果是遍及西藏、尼泊爾與巴基斯坦的喬戈里峰(K2)附近的今昔照片,顯示7座冰河都在消退。它們不僅大為縮減,其中1座甚至融化成湖泊。語調柔和的布里薛斯說:「如果這並非冰河嚴重衰退的證據,我不知道這算什麼。」這些消融中的冰河,對馬洛瑞在發現這些美麗冰峰時所讚稱的「終極和諧」,形成嚴重威脅。喜馬拉雅冰 川是世界第3大冰庫,僅次於南北極。它們的季節性融化,是恆河、印度河、湄公河與黃河等亞洲長河的重要水源。
http://tw.news.yahoo.com/article/url/d/a/100717/19/29eqb.html

祁連山最大的山谷冰川年均消融6米以上
2010-07-16 新華社

受氣候變暖等因素的影響,祁連山最大的山谷冰川--透明夢柯冰川(又叫老虎溝12號冰川),以年均6米以上的速度在退縮。中國科學院祁連山冰川與生態環境觀測研究站的監測表明,50余年中,這個冰川退縮了300余米。新華社記者連振祥攝
http://big5.xinhuanet.com/gate/big5/www.gs.xinhuanet.com/news/2010-07/16/content_20354892.htm

國際/氣候暖化導致海平面上升 巴拿馬島民被迫遷移
2010-07-13 沈子涵/整理

中新社13日據新加坡《聯合早報》報導,氣候暖化導致海平面上升,加上珊瑚礁連年遭受破壞,正迫使加勒比多座低窪小島上的數以千計巴拿馬土著,放棄世代以來居住的房屋,遷移到巴拿馬本土居住。季候風、暴風雨和高漲的潮水結合在一起,足以水淹分佈在加勒比海的這些小島,而深至腳踝的積水幾天都不會消退。

卡爾蒂蘇格杜布島(Carti Sugdub)領袖普雷西亞多記得,在他孩提時代,淹水情況罕見、短暫,且水位不會太高。他說:“現在完全不是那麼回事了。現在可嚴重了。” 在普雷西亞多的64歲生涯裡,積水深度上漲了幾英寸,這與全球海平面的上升是一致的。島民們開採珊瑚,減少了對海浪的緩衝作用,使這一問題加劇。

巴拿馬政府說,包括卡爾蒂蘇格杜布島在內的一些位於巴拿馬東北部海岸的小島,都受氣候暖化影響,以致半自治的3萬2000個庫納(Kuna)族 人,近半數的生計受到影響。卡爾蒂蘇格杜布島的2000個島民計畫搬遷到巴拿馬本土的庫納族自治區的沿海地區居住。他們看中的是距離海灘大約半小時腳程的一片山地。 帶領島民砍倒熱帶森林,以便為建造新定居點鋪路的普雷西亞多說:“海平面在上升,搬遷迫在眉睫。” 巴拿馬史密森尼熱帶研究所的海洋生物學家和珊瑚專家古茨曼說:“這已不只是科學家說氣候變化和海平面上升將引發洪水和影響一些人了……這已在真實世界裡出現。”

過去100年,全球海平面上升了大約17公分,而專家認為速度還在加快。
聯合國在2007年估計,到了2100年,海平面會上升18至59公分,這還沒有把南極洲和格陵蘭冰川加速融化的問題考慮在內。聯合國秘書長潘基文已警告,到了本世紀末,海平面可能上升2公尺,威脅從東京到上海至新奧爾良的數以百萬計城市居民。儘管庫納族領袖認為,從海風習習的小島搬到悶熱的森林的行動已迫在眉睫,但至今搬遷行動進展緩慢,因為島民缺乏適當的機器來清理土地。同時,儘管政府支持搬遷計畫,但卻沒有為島民們制定任何援助計畫。

82歲的莫里斯已準備從他協助興建的科伊比塔島(Coibita)上搬走。他說,自從有一次小島遭水淹,摧毀了茅屋和卷走獨木舟後,他每晚都睡不好。他說:“我還在等其他人決定我們幾時可以搬走,而我會跟他們一起走。”
http://www.cdnews.com.tw/cdnews_site/docDetail.jsp?coluid=109&docid=101225723

NASA展示衛星照片 格陵蘭冰川一夜之間大規模消退
Greenland Glacier Retreats One Mile Overnight! NASA Shows Satellite Photos

by Matthew McDermott, New York, NY on 07.12.10
NASA's just released some pretty dramatic satellite photos of the north branch of Greenland's Jakobshavn glacier from July 6 and 7--when an area of ice 2.7 square miles in size ( more than twice the size of New York City's Central Park), where the glacier meets the ocean, broke up overnight and the glacier retreated one mile inland. That's as much retreat in one night as the average for nearly two years. ..冰川與海洋交接處,一個晚上破裂消融了1哩,這一夜之間消融的量是將近兩年平均值。

Thomas Wagner, cryospheric program scientist at NASA, commented:
While there have been ice breakouts of this magnitude from Jakobshavn and other glaciers in the past, this event is unusual because it occurs on the heels of a warm winter that saw no sea ice in the surrounding bay. While this exact relationship between these events is being determined, it lends credence to the theory that warming of the oceans is responsible for the ice loss observed throughout Greenland and Antarctica.
Glacier Retreating One Kilometer Per Year Since 2000
The Jakobshavn glacier is located on the west coast of Greenland and has retreated more than 45 kilometers (27 miles) in the past 160 years, including 10 kilometers in the past decade alone. Estimates show that about 10% of all ice lost in Greenland comes through Jakobshavn--making it the single largest contributor to sea level rise in the northern hemisphere.
http://www.treehugger.com/files/2010/07/nasa-witnesses-greenland-glacier-breakup-overnight.php

晴天也淹!東石下陷 嚴重海水倒灌
2010/07/12 TVBS

這幾天天氣晴朗,南部沒降雨,嘉義卻淹水了,原來東石漁港因為地層下陷嚴重,港區水位漸漸的就比海平面低,一旦遇上了滿潮期,海水就會倒灌,從排水溝不斷冒出水來,但就算鄉公所把路面堤防都加高了,仍然無法有效解決問題。

這不是山林裡的小溪流,也不是溫泉冒水出來,其實是嘉義東石漁港的路面淹水,不過看看晴空萬里,陽光普照,一滴雨都沒下,積水哪來的?嘉義縣議員蔡鼎三:「受到地層下陷的影響,漁港的地層一年比一年還要低,遇到大潮,海水就會往陸地淹。」

原來東石漁港港區,長久以來地層下陷就很嚴重,漁港水位低於海平面,後果就是每逢滿潮,海水就會倒灌,還不是1 天、2天而已,漁民不勝其擾。蔡鼎三:「也沒有下雨,但仍然有水,希望觀光客也能以另外一種眼光,當作是一種地方的特色觀光。」大晴天就淹水,還不是滿潮期,鄉公所加高了堤防和路面,也沒有解決問題,擔心會影響觀光,當地人也只能無奈的說,請遊客來這邊看到大白天路面淹水,就當作是特色奇觀就好。
http://tw.news.yahoo.com/article/url/d/a/100712/8/294i9.html

研究:溫室氣體造成海平面在部分印度洋上升
Sea Levels Rising in Parts of Indian Ocean; Greenhouse Gases Play Role, Study Finds


ScienceDaily (July 13, 2010) — Newly detected rising sea levels in parts of the Indian Ocean, including the coastlines of the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea, Sri Lanka, Sumatra and Java, appear to be at least partly a result of human-induced increases of atmospheric greenhouse gases, says a study led by the University of Colorado at Boulder. 最新偵測部分印度洋上升中海平面,偵測範圍包括孟加拉灣、阿拉伯海、斯里蘭卡、蘇門答臘、爪哇沿線海岸,顯示至少部份是人類引起大氣層溫室氣體增加的結果,美國科羅拉多大學博爾德分校研究顯示。

Indian Ocean, from Visible Earth (http://visibleearth.nasa.gov). (Credit: Reto Stockli, NASA Earth Observatory)
The study, which combined sea surface measurements going back to the 1960s and satellite observations, indicates anthropogenic climate warming likely is amplifying regional sea rise changes in parts of the Indian Ocean, threatening inhabitants of some coastal areas and islands, said CU-Boulder Associate Professor Weiqing Han, lead study author. The sea level rise -- which may aggravate monsoon flooding in Bangladesh and India -- could have far-reaching impacts on both future regional and global climate.

The key player in the process is the Indo-Pacific warm pool, an enormous, bathtub-shaped area of the tropical oceans stretching from the east coast of Africa west to the International Date Line in the Pacific. The warm pool has heated by about 1 degree Fahrenheit, or 0.5 degrees Celsius, in the past 50 years, primarily caused by human-generated increases of greenhouse gases, said Han. 印度洋暖化池過去50年間大約上升華氏1度(或攝氏0,5度),主要由人為增加溫室氣體所造成。

"Our results from this study imply that if future anthropogenic warming effects in the Indo-Pacific warm pool dominate natural variability, mid-ocean islands such as the Mascarenhas Archipelago, coasts of Indonesia, Sumatra and the north Indian Ocean may experience significantly more sea level rise than the global average," said Han of CU-Boulder's atmospheric and oceanic sciences department. 我們研究結果說明了如果未來「人為暖化」效應發生在印度洋暖化池區域天然條件,像一些島嶼..將經歷比全球平均值更嚴重的海平面上升。

A paper on the subject was published in Nature Geoscience. Co-authors included Balaji Rajagopalan, Xiao-Wei Quan, Jih-wang Wang and Laurie Trenary of CU-Boulder, Gerald Meehl, John Fasullo, Aixue Hu, William Large and Stephen Yeager of the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Jialin Lin of Ohio State University, and Alan Walcraft and Toshiaki Shinoda of the Naval Research Laboratory in Mississippi. While a number of areas in the Indian Ocean region are showing sea level rise, the study also indicated the Seychelles Islands and Zanzibar off Tanzania's coastline show the largest sea level drop. Global sea level patterns are not geographically uniform, and sea rise in some areas correlate with sea level fall in other areas, said NCAR's Meehl. 全球海平面上升並非單一地理形式,某些區域海洋上升與另一區域海平面下降有關聯。

The Indian Ocean is the world's third largest ocean and makes up about 20 percent of the water on Earth's surface. The ocean is bounded on the west by East Africa, on the north by India, on the east by Indochina and Australia, and on the south by the Southern Ocean off the coast of Antarctica. The patterns of sea level change are driven by the combined enhancement of two primary atmospheric wind patterns known as the Hadley circulation and the Walker circulation. The Hadley circulation in the Indian Ocean is dominated by air currents rising above strongly heated tropical waters near the equator and flowing poleward, then sinking to the ocean in the subtropics and causing surface air to flow back toward the equator.

The Indian Ocean's Walker circulation causes air to rise and flow westward at upper levels, sink to the surface and then flow eastward back toward the Indo-Pacific warm pool. "The combined enhancement of the Hadley and Walker circulation form a distinct surface wind pattern that drives specific sea level patterns," said Han. The international research team used several different sophisticated ocean and climate models for the study, including the Parallel Ocean Program -- the ocean component of NCAR's widely used Community Climate System Model. In addition, the team used a wind-driven, linear ocean model for the study.

"Our new results show that human-caused changes of atmospheric and oceanic circulation over the Indian Ocean region -- which have not been studied previously -- are the major cause for the regional variability of sea level change," wrote the authors in Nature Geoscience.

Han said that based on all-season data records, there is no significant sea level rise around the Maldives. But when the team looked at winter season data only, the Maldives show significant sea level rise, a cause for concern.
The smallest Asian country, the Maldives is made up of more than 1,000 islands -- about 200 of which are inhabited by about 300,000 people -- and are on average only about five feet above sea level. The complex circulation patterns in the Indian Ocean may also affect precipitation by forcing even more atmospheric air down to the surface in Indian Ocean subtropical regions than normal, Han speculated. "This may favor a weakening of atmospheric convection in the subtropics, which may increase rainfall in the eastern tropical regions of the Indian Ocean and increase drought in the western equatorial Indian Ocean region, including east Africa," Han said.

The new study indicates that in order to document sea level change on a global scale, researchers also need to know the specifics of regional sea level changes that will be important for coastal and island regions, said NCAR's Hu. Along the coasts of the northern Indian Ocean, seas have risen by an average of about 0.5 inches, or 13 millimeters, per decade. "It is important for us to understand the regional changes of the sea level, which will have effects on coastal and island regions," said Hu. The study was funded by a number of organizations, including NCAR, the National Science Foundation, NASA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

Story Source:
The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by University of Colorado at Boulder, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/07/100713101412.htm

氣候暖化 中國天山凍土迅速退化
2010/07/13 CNA

(中央社台北13日電)中國科學院最新研究顯示,由於氣候變暖,天山烏魯木齊水源區平均地溫明顯上升,凍土退化嚴重,幾年來深度已減少7.7公尺。新華社報導,中國科學院寒區旱區環境與工程研究所人員分析海拔約3500公尺的水源區1991年以來的氣溫、降雨、地溫觀測數據,結果發現,水源區的多年凍 土活動層逐漸增厚,2007年出現最厚的活動層,達到1.6公尺,比1992年增加0.35公尺。

研究還發現,1993年當地年平均地溫從攝氏零下1.6度上升到2008年的零下1度。估算2008年凍土下陷深度約86.8公尺,比1992年減小7.7公尺,水源區凍土很可能正在由下而上迅速退化。研究員表示,凍土活動層的變化與水源區夏季(5月到10月)水溫密切相關,活動層厚度隨融化指數、夏季降雨量的增加而增大。專家推測,持續暖化是導致烏魯木齊水源區多年凍土升溫的主因。

這項研究除了了解烏魯木齊水源區凍土的變化之外,對於全球暖化下,天山植被土壤演化和水文變化也具有意義。有「中亞水塔」之稱的天山是橫貫新疆中部的大山脈,平均海拔約5000公尺。新疆冰川面積及儲量約佔中國的一半,佔西北地區的90%以上,其中天山冰川面積為 9235.96平方公里,約佔新疆冰川面積的32.4%。
http://tw.news.yahoo.com/article/url/d/a/100713/5/296jg.html

印尼赤道冰河 恐於數年內消失
2010-07-02 公視晚間新聞

位在印尼巴布亞省、海拔四千八百多公尺的查亞峰有一條赤道冰河,這也是太平洋地區最後的一條冰河。但是美國科學家最近實地探勘之後發現冰河消融的速度非常快,可能幾年之內就會完全消失。

印尼巴布亞省查亞山上,這片厚重的白色冰雪,就是珍貴稀有的赤道冰河,河面上一道道深深的裂縫,就是冰河正在融化的痕跡。科學家湯普森教授指出,這條冰河消融速度非常快,他們在山頂實地考察13天,天天都有午後陣雨,冰雪量快速減少。查亞峰上的冰河,是太平洋地區僅存的最後一條冰河,從1936年以來,已經有八成的冰融化消失,原本蓋滿整個山峰的冰雪,如今剩下兩公里寬,29公尺深。

湯普森教授指出,這條冰河位在全世界最溫暖的太平洋週邊,而太平洋是聖嬰現象的發源地,影響力遍及全球,冰河融化對於這個區域氣候型態的影響,還需要更深 入的探討。他們把這次鑽探出來的冰雪帶回美國俄亥俄州立大學的冷凍研究室分析,希望從冰凍在其中的氣泡和塵土,一層層揭開千萬年來氣候變遷的全貌。
http://web.pts.org.tw/php/news/pts_news/detail.php?NEENO=152830
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